SHOREVIEW, Minn. — Cold temperatures can be problematic to long-term sow performance if not accounted for. Fortunately, changes can be made before temperatures drop too low and sows are impacted.
Two strategies for mitigating cold stress are facility air movement and adjustments in sow rations.
Industry research shows cold temperatures can cause sows to lose body condition which, in turn, can impact: fertility, milk production and piglet survival and growth performance — resulting in potential declines in sow longevity and parity structure in the herd.
Vern Pearson, Ph.D., swine nutritionist for Purina Animal Nutrition, recommends evaluating air temperature, air flow and sow rations in the facility to reduce the risk for cold stress in sows.
Recommended seasonal facility changes vary based on the type of facility. Pearson says air temperature is not usually a severe challenge in curtain-sided or environmentally controlled gestation and farrowing barns, but that air flow can cause concern.
“In these facilities, adult sows typically provide enough heat to warm the barn,” he says.
“We need to evaluate mechanical ventilation, however. Be sure that mechanical ventilation, which is needed for airflow in the summer, does not create excessive air movement that could cause a ‘wind chill’ effect inside climate-controlled barns.”
Both air temperature and air flow can be problematic in open-fronted and open-sided barns used to house sows. In these settings, additional bedding and management of drafts can help minimize chilling of animals. Cold-weather sow rations.
Pearson says that the most common impact of cold temperature stress is that sows do not consume enough feed in the winter to maintain their condition. Decreases in body condition score (BCS) below the ideal 3 on a 5-point scale can set sows back in long-term performance.
“We need to keep sows at a BCS of 3, which may require more feed during cold temperatures,” he says.
“As temperatures decrease, sows require more feed to regulate their cold body temperatures. Without added nutrients, the sow will allocate resources away from other body functions.”
In addition to body condition maintenance and litter support, sows require energy to generate internal heat during cold periods.
Researchers at Mississippi State University Extension estimate that up to 25 percent more feed is required by sows during extremely cold conditions.
Tips to help maintain consumption levels and meet this higher nutrient level include:
“It’s a combination of management factors that helps sows thrive through winter,” Pearson says.
“The correct combination of ration adjustments as well as air temperature and air flow management can help producers set sows up to perform long-term through the cold season.”