Earthworms, while beneficial, can also destroy


Next time you roam your favorite woodlot, study the leaf litter. Is it thick and spongy, a pure joy to walk upon?

Or is it just a few leaves here and there, or maybe just bare soil? If your woodlot is in or near suburbia, organic matter covering the soil may be scant or absent.

If so, blame earthworms. Though too many deer can destroy ground vegetation, earthworms exert an influence on forest ecosystems that few can imagine.

New perspective

Most of us learned as children that earthworms were beneficial citizens of the environment. Their burrows allowed air and water to circulate through the soil, and the castings (excrement) they leave behind enrich the soil.

We learned these lessons because they are true on farms and even in backyards. But in forests, earthworms are abundant and destructive. They destroy the leaf litter on the forest floor simply by eating it. It wasn’t always that way.

When Europeans settled North America, they brought with them rocks and soil as ballast in their ships. Upon arrival they dumped the debris on shore. And many immigrants brought garden and ornamental plants that contained earthworms or egg cases.

That’s how the first Old World earthworms, such as nightcrawlers (Lumbricus terrestris) and red wigglers (Eisentia fetida) arrived in North America.

In pre-Columbian North America, fungi and bacteria were the primary decomposers of the leaf litter that accumulates after each growing season. But their rate of decomposition is slower than the rate of accumulation of leaf litter, so the layer of duff increases slowly.

Add invasive earthworms, however, and the duff quickly disappears. The worms literally eat the duff and leave behind bare soil that easily compacts and is more difficult for plants to colonize.

Seeds are more vulnerable to drying, freezing and predation by insects and small mammals. Even the nesting success of ground nesting birds such as ovenbirds is reduced.

Changing forests

These Old World earthworms can truly change the integrity of native forests. While some plants such as jack-in-the-pulpit can tolerate the changes caused by earthworms, many can not.

Wildflowers such as trilliums and bloodroot and even sugar maple seedlings disappear. The result is a barren forest floor.

Add too many deer, and the impact on the forest floor becomes devastating. Ground cover disappears.

I learned all this last week at the Ohio Wildlife Diversity Conference in Columbus, an annual event that attracts nearly 1,000 nature enthusiasts.

Dr. Cindy Hale, research scientist at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, reviewed her research on exotic earthworms’ impact on forest ecosystems. Much of her work is summarized in a fascinating booklet entitled Earthworms of the Great Lakes ($12.95,

Dr. Hale pointed out that “no native earthworms have been documented in the Great Lakes region of North America. When the last glacial ice sheets receded 11,000 to 14,000 years ago, the ground beneath those glaciers was left earthworm-free.”

Invasive worms

Today those forest floors are ravaged by exotic earthworms, imported intentionally as fish bait or in compost and mulch.

Hale says that today approximately $110 million worth of earthworms are imported from Canada to the U.S. each year for the fishing industry.

And all are invasive exotic species. The good news is that there still are areas free of earthworms. They are most common in areas of intense human activity and absent from the most remote areas.

“If we stop moving and introducing earthworms, we can retain earthworm-free areas for a long time,” Hale says.

It’s virtually impossible to undo the damage that has been done by earthworms, but Hale urges people to spread the word about invasive earthworms.

The citizen science website,, contains great information for landowners, teachers, and students.

Hale also suggests throwing unused worms used as fish bait into the trash, and not on land or in the water. Freeze compost solid for at least a week to kill the worms before using, and do not transport leaves, compost or mulch from place to place.

If you use ATVs or other vehicles with heavy treads that can hold soil, wash the treads before moving the vehicle from place to place.

(Send questions and comments to Dr. Scott Shalaway, 2222 Fish Ridge Road, Cameron, WV 26033 or by email via his web site,


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Scott Shalaway, who holds a Ph.D. in wildlife ecology from Michigan State University, writes from his home in rural West Virginia. A former faculty member at Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma Biological Station, he has been writing a weekly nature column for newspapers and freelancing for magazines since 1986. He can be heard on Birds & Nature from 3-4 p.m. Sunday afternoons on 620 KHB Radio, Pittsburgh, or live online anywhere at, or on the Tune-In radio app. Visit his website at or contact him directly at or 2222 Fish Ridge Road, Cameron, WV 26033.


  1. I have found hundreds of joung redish coloured worms like earthworms in my flower garden. When planting young seedlings within one week there will be nothing. Full grown flowers suddenly looks as if it needs water. The next day or two, the plant will be completely dead and all the roots are gone. When growing out a half died flower, we find more than 30 of this small wiggling worms in the ground and between the roots. I could not believe it is earthworms, but now I do believe it have to be earthworms. Thanks. I google more than 3 months now, and you convinced me to kill all earthworms in my flower garden


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