European baking: Metric to standard conversion charts

jar of flour

Many of the baked goods we enjoy making during the holidays and treating ourselves to when we go out to eat originated in Europe. The biscotti we dunk in our coffee came from Italy. The kuchen we remember our grandmothers making came from Germany. Macarons are French. Mascarpone is Italian. Trifles are English.

If you look up European recipes online, you’ll notice that measurements are almost always given in grams and milliliters. If you’re not a metric units whiz, or if you don’t have a kitchen scale, this can be confusing. How do you know how much flour to purchase or how much sugar to set aside? And what’s that conversion for Celsius to Fahrenheit that you learned in junior high?

Below you’ll find metric-to-standard conversion charts for liquid and dry ingredients, as well as conversions for common baking temperatures and pan sizes. Reference them during your next European baking experiment.

Note: If your recipe indicates a specific metric measurement that’s different from the following charts, follow your recipe. The following measures are rounded up or down for ease of measuring.

Metric to standard dry ingredients conversion chart

Metric measurements vary for different dry ingredients. ¼ cup of all-purpose flour equals 32 grams, but ¼ cup granulated white sugar equals 50 grams. AllRecipes offers metric-to-standard conversion charts for many common dry ingredients.

Metric to standard liquid ingredient conversion chart

Metric measurements differ slightly for liquids and liquid solids:

Metric for liquid solids (butter)Metric for liquids (milk)Standard
1 mL1 mL1/4 tsp.
2 mL2 mL1/2 tsp.
5 mL5 mL1 tsp.
14 mL15 mL1 Tbsp. (3 tsp.)
28 mL30 mL1/8 cup
57 mL60 mL1/4 cup
76 mL80 mL1/3 cup
113 mL120 mL1/2 cup
152 mL160 mL2/3 cup
171 mL180 mL3/4 cup
227 mL240 mL1 cup
454 mL480 mL1 pint
908 mL960 mL1 quart

Metric to standard pan conversion chart

Pan sizes for European recipes may be given in centimeters instead of inches. Here are the equivalents for some common baking pans:

Metric Pan SizesStandard Pan Sizes
33 x 23 x 5 cm13 x 9 x 2 inch pan
20 x 20 x 5 cm8 x 8 x 2 inch square pan
23 x 23 x 5 cm9 x 9 x 2 inch square pan
20 x 4 cm8 x 1.5-inch round pan
23 x 4 cm9 x 1.5-inch round pan
20 cm8-inch pie pan
23 cm9-inch pie pan
25 cm10-inch pie pan
23 x 13 x 6 cm9 x 5 x 3-inch loaf pan

Metric to standard temperature conversion chart

European recipes usually give oven temperatures in Celsius.

CelsiusGas MarkFahrenheit
160 C3325 F
180 C4350 F
190 C5375 F
200 C6400 F
220 C7425 F
230 C8450 F


And here’s a reference for basic water temperatures that you may need for certain recipes:

Water Freezes0 C32 F
Room Temperature20 C68 F
Water Boils100 C212 F

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  1. A few hints: in metric recipes butter is not measured in ml, but always in grams. At least in Germany.
    Teaspoons and tablespoons actually exist in metric cookbooks, too, so no need to convert in this case.
    Easiest way for dealing with metric recipes is to invest 20$ in a metric kitchen scale and a metric measuring cup for liquids. No other devices needed and no hassle with conversion.

    • I went to work for an Austrian baker after I retired,part time. OMG! It took me the longest to get used to metric. Very different from US.
      I just bought myself a scale that weighs both(winter project is to make pasta). The book I bought has non other than metric measures. But I’m used to it now!
      Wish I read your post awhile back! Thanx!

  2. I’m exited to try this apple recipe Upstate New York produces excellent apples. Struggling with the pan size you are using. I’ve examined conversion charts, not much help. Any ideas?

  3. I’m a US nurse who has always used the metric system in drug calculations, etc, so this isn’t hard at all for me. I’ve never had the need until recently to convert Celcius to Fahrenheit until recently, as the US is swinging that way, too.


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