Black walnut trees are highly sought after. Foragers collect their fruits from midsummer through early fall to enjoy the rich flavor of their nutmeats – if they can beat the local wildlife. They are also among the most desirable hardwoods for furniture and cabinet making. Even their hulls can be put to use to make unique wood stain.
Black walnut trees are still considered abundant throughout the Midwest; however, they are not as widely dispersed as they once were due to being harvested for lumber. Black walnut wood is desirable because of its deep color, its dimensional stability and resistance to splitting and the fact that it seldom decays in the center. It’s actually a stronger wood than white oak. A large walnut tree or a stand of trees can reap a decent pay day.
Walnut trees planted today wouldn’t become mature enough to timber for 40-60 years. So planting a grove intended for lumber would be an investment for retirement or future generations. Fortunately, you’ll be able to enjoy shade and foraging opportunities much sooner. It only takes 10-13 years for walnuts grown from seed to bear fruit.
If you would like to plant walnut trees there are a few considerations you need to make to ensure success. Learn how to pick an ideal planting site, choose viable seeds and ensure seed germination to successfully grow a walnut tree from seed.
Choosing a location to plant walnut seeds
Walnut trees most abundantly along stream banks, along watercourses, in bottomlands, open fields and along the edges of forests. They prefer full sun and deep, moist, rich, well-drained soil. They will grow in soil containing clay or rock, but much slower than seeds planting in unobstructed soil. Additionally, they prefer soil with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5.
Once you find a location with ideal growing conditions, the next consideration you need to make is what else is growing nearby. Black walnut tree roots produce juglone, which can affect other plants growing in close proximity. These plants include pines, potatoes, tomatoes, blackberries, alfalfa and apples. You’ll have to find a location with ideal growing conditions where your walnut tree will not negatively impact neighboring plants.
Determining whether seeds are viable
Not all the walnut seeds you’ve collected will be viable to grow a tree. You can determine viability and how many seeds to plant per hole by following these steps:
- Remove husks.
- Place nuts in a bucket of water.
- Discard floating nuts.
- Save nuts that sank to the bottom.
- Crack open a small sample of the nuts you have left to determine viability. Viable nuts have white, solid meats; non-viable seeds have beige, shriveled kernels that are watery or give off a foul odor. The percentage of viable seeds in your sample will help you determine how many seeds you need to plant per hole to ensure success.
- Figure out how many seeds to plant per hole. If 80-100% were viable, plant 2 seeds per hole. If 60-80% were viable, plant 3 seeds per hole. If 40-60% were viable, plant 4 seeds per hole. If less than 40% were viable, plant 5+ seeds per hole.
Ensuring germination of black walnut seeds
Before walnut seeds will germinate, they have to be exposed to cold temperatures and moist conditions. This can be accomplished by planting nuts outside in the fall or by stratifying them indoors over winter.
Black walnut seeds should be planted about 2 inches deep in moist soil in the fall. If you’re planting more than one seed per hole, space them out so that unwanted seedlings will be easier to remove later.
Stratify walnut seeds by placing them in a moist mixture of sand and peat moss and then storing them in a cool location. You can store them in the refrigerator in plastic containers or food storage bags. The stratification process takes 90 to 120 days. Check periodically to make sure your seeds have not dried out.
After they’ve been stratified, they can be removed from the refrigerator and planted in the spring.
- Foraging for black walnuts: How to find and gather black walnuts
- How to make wood stain from black walnut hulls
- How to harvest, process and store black walnuts
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