Black vulture kills increasing in Ohio

black vulture
Black vulture. By Everglades NPS from Homestead, Florida, United States (Black Vulture, NPSphotos.jpg) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

SALEM, Ohio — Fairfield County cattleman Dick Kilbarger saw it with his own eyes: Eight or 10 black vultures spread in a semi-circle across his pasture, backing a cow and her newborn calf into a corner.

He sat a ways back on his ATV, just watching. But when those birds got too close, got too comfortable with tiring that cow and trying to cut her calf away from her protection, he swooped in to protect the herd.

He’d already seen what the vultures intended: to peck the eyes out of the calf, to disorient it, then go to work at killing it.

“They’re just damn vicious, mean, ugly birds,” he says of the black vultures that have made their presence known in the county.

“Hard cotton-pickin’ things to kill, too.”

“It’s disheartening, and another obstacle in the production cycle,” said Kilbarger, who manages a herd of about 100 commercial brood cows near Bremen, Ohio.

“You hate to see them taking a baby calf and killing it when there’s plenty of dead deer laying around they could be going after.”

Gaining ground

Judging by the number of calls he’s received from producers in the past three years, Ohio State University Extension wildlife specialist Stan Gehrt agrees that vulture numbers are increasing in Ohio.

Compared with West Virginia, where there’s a sizable established colony of black vultures that cause “pretty dramatic” damage, Ohio is still relatively unscathed, according to Gehrt.

But those West Virginia birds are moving northward, he said, giving Ohio livestock producers a whole new predator to deal with.

Not the same

Black vultures are not the same as a turkey vulture, sometimes called a turkey buzzard, Gehrt said.

Black vultures are slightly smaller than turkey vultures and have a black head, whereas the more common turkey vulture has a reddish head, he said.

What sets the two species apart most is their behavior, Gehrt said.

Turkey vultures are mild-mannered and timid, the expert explained, and tend to scavenge on dead animals and roadkill. Black vultures, on the other hand, can be aggressive and will kill living animals, such as lambs and calves on farms, and groundhogs and other wild animals.

“These things go after an animal in groups. There can be five or six of them, all the way up to dozens,” Gehrt said, adding other states have reported colonies of hundreds of vultures.

“We’re not at a critical level yet here in Ohio, and we hope it doesn’t get to that point,” Gehrt said. “But they are expanding their range, and we may end up with large colonies like other states.”

Black vultures are not the same as a turkey vulture. Black vultures are slightly smaller than turkey vultures and have a black head; the more common turkey vulture has a reddish head.


Since July 1, 2007, only five Ohio counties — Adams, Brown and Highland in the southwestern part of the state, and Fairfield and Knox in east-central Ohio — have seen vulture-related payouts from the state’s indemnification program, according to department of agriculture spokesman Bill Schwaderer.

That program compensates producers fair market value on animals proven to have been killed by black vultures or coyotes.

Producers in those counties have already collected more than $3,900 this year from the state for their livestock losses tied to vultures, the highest figure since the program kicked off in 2005.

Last year, Kilbarger collected $100 for one calf killed by the vultures. He said the indemnity program and the legwork necessary to participate aren’t convenient, but that getting a little money to compensate for the loss does help out.

“But it doesn’t make everything better,” he said.

What to do

Though the vultures aren’t endangered, they are migratory birds and are protected under federal law, Gehrt said. That means even if you see a group of vultures circling your pasture, you’re nearly helpless.

“You can’t just take a gun and shoot them without a special permit,” he said.

Those migratory bird depredation permits are available from the Division of Wildlife but are issued only after the agency determines there’s an excessive problem on your farm that’s causing a significant economic burden, Gehrt said.

Kilbarger has one of the permits, and used it to kill one black vulture last year, and one more this year. He appreciates that the permit allows him to shoot at the birds, even if he doesn’t kill one.

“I’ve found they’re kind of timid after you’ve shot at them once or twice,” he said.


For those who can’t secure a permit, there are other methods to keeping vultures at bay, Gehrt said.

Any livestock owner can take preventive measures, such as keeping young lambs and calves penned inside and out of harm’s way.

In areas where the vulture problem is more chronic, producers can try electronic noise harassment. Gehrt said a popular method used now on turkey vultures is audible firecracker shells.

Another method often used is an effigy, which is a stuffed vulture that’s hung from a pole or limb to simulate a dead bird and discourage others from coming into the area. Kilbarger uses the birds he’s shot this way, he said.

“Black vultures are very smart birds, and that’s one of the problems with them,” Gehrt said. “They eventually figure it out and then [control methods] don’t work anymore.”


Gehrt warns that although sightings of black vultures often cause panic or dread in rural areas, it doesn’t have to be that way.

“Not all black vultures will become a threat to stock. It’s not that anytime you see one there’s an immediate threat. But if you do see them, keep an eye on them,” he warned.


The indemnity process


To report a predator loss by black vultures to the Ohio Department of Agriculture for reimbursement under the indemnity program:


  • Notify your local dog warden by telephone within 72 hours after the loss or injury has been discovered. The dog warden must promptly visit your farm to determine whether the kill was by a predator or not.If the dog warden determines that the kill was not by a predator, then no further steps need to be taken as there is no claim under the indemnity program.



  • Document, by photograph, the injuries sustained by the animal. This should be done immediately after contacting the dog warden. Do not wait for the determination as to whether the kill was by a predator or not. It is advised to leave the animal where it lays for investigative purposes.



  • Obtain an indemnification form from the dog warden. This form will need to be filled out and sent to ODA within 30 days of discovery of the animal by the owner.Photos taken of the injuries and any other pertinent facts must accompany this document. If the animal injured or killed is a registered animal, then registration papers should also accompany the indemnification form.



  • If the dog warden determines that the kill was by a predator, he must promptly contact the county’s wildlife officer.



  • The wildlife officer must confirm, disaffirm, or state that he is uncertain about the determination of the dog warden on the claim.If the wildlife officer disaffirms the claim of the dog warden, the owner has no claim under the ODA indemnity program.

    If the wildlife officer affirms or states that he is uncertain about the determination of the dog warden, the wildlife officer must notify the ODA, in writing, of the determination.



  • The ODA will hear claims that are approved by the dog warden and supported by the wildlife officer. The ODA may decide to grant full compensation, partial compensation, or no compensation.



  • If the owner feels that the ODA’s determination of the fair market value, he may appeal the determination.



(Sources: Jeff Pelc, Wildlife Biologist USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services and Tim Fine, Ohio State University Extension Program Assistant, Miami County)



For more information on the indemnity process:




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  1. As a resident of Reading, PA, I am writing to you because of recent developments.

    Most in my neighborhood have noticed that all of the sudden, over 100 black vultures gather at a local park every day. It’s a pretty frightening sight since these birds gather in a public with people all over the place.

    I even notice that they are starting to gather on the roofs of houses in the neighborhood, including my own.

    I also have pictures of about 20 of them gathered on my neighbor’s roof.

    If a staff photographer from a local newspaper ever saw the gathering of the birds, I’m quite sure it would make national news.

    Robert Poindexter
    (610) 781-0101

    • Just commented on the black vultures that I’ve now seen daily in Olmsted Township, OH. I’ve lived here over 25 yrs & never saw these birds previously. I read your comment from 2009 & wondered if you’re seeing more birds now or have you found a way to rid them from the area. I definately feel your concern. They’re creepy & aggressive as my comment states.

  2. This is the first year I’ve noticed the vultures. My neighbor told me I had turkey vultures living in my old horse barn that’s now vacant. Now, after watching them come out from the woods & swoop down to get a better look at my Cocker Spaniel puppies, I knew they weren’t turkey vultures. They are black vultures & I can no longer let my puppies outside to play. My friend & I were right there playing with 6 puppies when one of them swooped down very close. We immediately took them all back inside while they continued to circle just above the house. I still had 3 older puppies playing in the front yard that they were also interested in. Sometimes they swoop down near us when I don’t even have puppies outside with me. That’s how I’ve been able to get a good look at them & a positive identification. I just knew these birds were NOT harmless. They’re aggressive & I felt like I was in an old Hitchcock movie with these large birds coming out from the woods. I have now seen 7 of them together.

  3. This is scary stuff,,I’am from Oklahoma and never had to deal with this kind of thing before. We had alot of coyotes to manage and a mountain lion once in awhile but never killer birds.Thank you for putting this article out.

  4. My son and I went out metal detecting by an old abandoned barn today and were startled by a large black buzzard. It flew out of the barn into a tree above. We looked into the barn and noticed 2 eggs on the floor. I managed to get pics of the eggs and the bird but it was watching closely. I thought it was in a strange place with all the rat waste around. We have a lot of coyotes and foxes here. Seemed like the rat pellets would have attracted another predator. This was my first time seeing a black buzzard. Wish I could attach the pics to share…

  5. I no longer have groundhogs, who were abundant here, since the coyotes & black vultures have taken their local environment. The black vultures are roosting with the turkey vultures in my old horse barn. I’ve now seen one of each flying out the barn door when I approach with my riding mower. The shiney black vulture was huge & just seemed to push it’s way through the heavy branches & leaves like something prehistoric. Very impressive, even though the turkey vulture is supposed to be slightly larger in size, the two I’ve seen fly out of the barn were the opposite in size.

  6. I live in Hot Springs Arkansas, I have had 2 black buzzards hanging around my house since last March. Just noticed that I also have now a black buzzard chick in my dog house which is fenced around. The chick is big as a rooster, fluffy brown it stays in the dog house and the mother sits on top of the house. I wasn’t aware they were dangerous until I read your article. I have 2 small dogs, and the buzzards have left them alone so far…

  7. We just encounter our first black headed vulture!!! It follows the turkey vultures. They don’t have a good sense of smell and use the turkey vultures to find their meals. We have goats and sheep. So far the guard dogs that we raise have fan them off!!!

  8. My husband and I just got back from visiting in Sheffield Lake Ohio. When driving down 301, I have been noticing Vultures for over the last 12 years, prior to that, I’ve only read about them, now I’m seeing them and I find it interesting, just don’t want to get to close to them!

  9. On the way to church a few weeks back, I noticed a ho e with wall to wall black headed vultures covering the roof, and a few of them were even on the front porch. I could not believe my eyes, especially because this ho e is still occupied. A week later, there were fewer on the roof, and this week there were none. Sound like this variety of vulture is rapidly growing, and some method of control should be enacted asap. In all my years I have never witnessed anything like this.

  10. Have a small farm in Winchester Va. and raise cattle. It spring calving season and I went in to check on a newborn (3 day old calf) and found about 50 black vultures pecking its eyes and other parts of the body. It was near death so I had no choice but to put it out of its misery. Called Game and wildlife and they said the black vultures are protected. Requires a annual $100.00 permit annually to protect your livestock… Doesn’t make since

  11. I live on The Eastern Shore of Maryland. We are over run with black buzzards ! We live on a Farm , I have Beef Cattle and Horses. They have killed 4 of my calfs ans an old cow in the ladt month. I spend most of my day running them off. While I was standing watch on a new born they surrounded me. I was just terrified. Not only were they jumping at the Mother as I hit them with a Baseball bat , They jumped at mr repeatedly ! These birds are very dangerous and we have a couple hundred . I just want to know why is it illegal to shoot them ? We alwayd had Turkey Buzzards and no problems. I am at y breaking point ! Laws need to be changed. There are way to many and they need to be thinned out one way or another. When they start killing your animals , They need to be killed.

  12. Since ODNR seeded timber rattlers and coyotes sure doesn’t make me have a really good feeling aboug this. I only have 7 acres and only 10 head of goats, down from 90. The goats are all reg.and are show goats. I’ll bet ODNR won’t reimburse me loss on $3000.00 goat. Maybe I can’t shoot them, I do have dogs that will terminate any unwanted predator, ODNR can feel free to discuss the matter with them they. like strangers and predators about the same, not much. I don’t trust ODNR at all.

  13. The alleged aggressiveness of black vultures sounds like BS to me. I live in TX where we have large vulture roosts which typically include a mixture of black and turkey vultures and sometimes even a crested caracara (Mexican Eagle). They are quite active locally and I have never seen any evidence of aggressive behavior except towards each other. I have to wonder how a bird that lacks the ability even to grasp with its talons would go about attacking a larger mammal in the first place. I have also seen no evidence of any ability to communicate well enough to coordinate such an attack. As I said it smells like BS to me.

    • Sounds to me, that you don’t own animals susepctible to these vultures. They are common in Israel and the local area for a reason. Do you have a clue?. I doubt you do.

    • The only bs is that you may not have any animals born out in the open the ranch I work on lost 8 calves and 2 cows 2 years ago nothing as bad as finding a new calf still alive with his eyes pecked out and tounge bit off due to black buzzards get out of your shell and ask around

  14. Actually, I do have a clue. Down here in TX, we have often had groups of mixed turkey and black vultures feeding on my property (and elsewhere in the general area), typically on small animals like raccoons, skunks, and possums, but also on adult deer carcasses. There are numerous squirrels, feral cats, and other small animals in the area as well. While some are taken pretty regularly by local coyotes and sometimes by great horned owls or hawks, I have never seen either type of vulture attack a living animal. For that matter, while we only rarely see the local Caracara’s, we have never seen them attack a living animal either, and they are much more suited, biologically speaking, for attack, being essentially a form of eagle, with grasping talons. I find it difficult to understand exactly how a bird that cannot grasp with its talons, as vultures cannot, would go about attacking even small animals. Also vultures are fairly delicate animals, who would have difficulty with larger animals like calves or sheep, which would be dangerous for them to tackle. Even Golden Eagles don’t attempt anything bigger than the occasional fawn or young goat. Of course, those are all solitary hunters. When threatened, our vultures don’t attack, they just vomit at you (bad enough in itself!), So I’m naturally a little leery of these stories of attacking vultures. I am assuming that these attacks have actually been witnessed, not just determined “after the fact” as it were. I have seen Harris hawks hunt in small groups (I suspect family groups) and “herd” rabbits when they hunt them, but I have never seen any other type of raptor join together to hunt anything. As far as I have seen, neither type of vulture seems to have the ability to communicate well enough to hunt together, nor would they be likely to have the instinct to join together to hunt. I say that, based on the fact that, being primarily scavengers, their instincts would be more likely to develop competition oriented behavior modules, rather than cooperative ones.

    So, if you have black vultures actually cooperatively hunting live prey, that would seem to imply a whole new form of behavior for the species, which would be likely to result eventually, in the development of a whole new variation, or potentially, even a new species. Given the significance of this change, I am very interested, but as I have discovered over the years, all too often, eye witness accounts are faulty in that they reflect the reporter’s beliefs about what happened before he or she actually arrived, or about what they wee witnessing but interrupted in process. For example, if someone saw a group of vultures “herding” or “cutting out” a calf, it may have been something like an attempt to protect their eggs, which the observer didn’t see or know about. Thus, a report of vultures “hunting” may have actually been an observation of fairly well understood nest protection behavior. Such an error is not the intention of the observer, but arises from the difficulty (common among untrained observers) with unknowingly interpreting the underlying reasons for the specific behavior that was actually observed. Given the increasing frequency of the reports from your area, I suspect we may have a whole new behavior emerging, but we need to be sure what is actually being witnessed.

    • You’re being very nieve. ..maybe not in your state…but, they are horrible demon creatures and should not be protected…no one reimburses damage to roofs and autos…there must be a hundred in my Kentucky town…these are not your turkey vultures who do a service to mankind…they have actually gone into barns where the cow is many go after the calf that they injure the mother also…have also attacked horses eyes…something has to be done and soon…I think southern Indiana has a horrible time with them. .

    • You may well be right about aggressive behavior. My question is more along the lines of what is causing an increase in such aggressive behavior? I applaud you for reporting accurately what you actually observed. Good on you, Diane!

      • “…what is causing an increase in such aggressive behavior?”

        Their numbers have increased quite a bit in recent years. When there is not enough food for them, they begin to attack livestock and pets.

        Another possibility is that they might actually prefer the taste of a newborn baby calf.

  15. We have a dozen or more black vultures that hang out in an old dead tree. We recently purchased this 250 acres in the Hartford AR area. I was just noticing the other day that these vultures were all black, unlike previous vultures I have seen. We will have to keep an eye out as we have about 50 longhorn cattle. We have not yet lost a calf to any predators and we have seen coyotes right down by the herd. Yea for protective mothers that just happen to carry an effective weapon on their heads.

  16. Fortunately, most dogs of the livestock guardian breeds (Great Pyrenees, Anatolian Shepherds, Kangals, Maremma, Kuvaszoc, etc.) are excellent & steadfast about running off predatory birds, as well as mammalian predators.

  17. I live in a suburb of Cincinnati Ohio and have just witnessed a flock of these black headed vultures fly into our area. I lost count at 100!!! We have the occasional turkey vultures here and the most I’ve seen together at one time is 10-12. These birds flew in and roosted in a clump of trees. The sight was pretty frightening. They have been here several days. Does anyone know if they migrate? I’m hoping they are just passing through. I was able to get a few pictures. It is incredible!

  18. I’ve never seen that many black vultures at one time here but I know they come in March with the turkey vultures & roost together in my old horse barn. There is a special welcoming party in Hinckley, OH in March dedicated to the turkey vultures, but I wouldn’t welcome the black vultures.

  19. In the linked article, it seems to suggest that a biologist from OSU apparently agrees that black vultures, as opposed to turkey vultures (the more common -in Ohio – Hinkley Ridge guys), are more aggressive in nature and behavior. We have lots of both types down here in TX, but I have never seen either type attack a live animal. I haven’t noticed any appreciable difference in their behavior either. We also have the occasional Crested Caracara here too, which is a notably more aggressive bird, sometimes called the “Mexican Eagle,” that hangs out with vultures and typically eats first at any carcass. They ARE more aggressive, and DO kill small animals, so maybe that keeps our black vultures more timid down here. But Caracaras are dramatically different from vultures physiologically, in that they have grasping talons with which to kill. Vultures do not, which makes it hard for them to kill something. Predatory birds like eagles, hawks, owls, etc. don’t typically kill with their beaks, but with their talons. Vultures are unable to grasp with their feet, which is probably why you never see them dragging roadkill off to a safer area – they can’t grab onto it, and that also makes them unable to use their feet as weapons, either for killing or for defense. Their innate defense mechanism is to vomit on threats.
    A flock of 100 birds sounds like a migrating group to me, as that would be a pretty large group to work the same territory (unless there were a LOT of dead animals available to support them), and this is a typical migration time. If that’s the case, most of them should move on within a few days to a week.

  20. For those who already have Turkey vultures around, be aware that they aren’t born with red head/necks. Unless you see them in flight, they are hard to distinguish from black vultures until they are a couple of years old. The major distinguishing features between them are seen in flight, where the Turkey vultures soar with wings above their heads in a dihedral angle (V shaped), while blacks soar with wings level, and Turkey vultures have a white strip along the trailing wing edge underneath, while black vultures have a white patch on the underside of their wingtips. These features are present as soon as they can fly.
    I’m not saying black vultures don’t kill weak animals, but I’d love to see some definitive video of it in progress. The problem is that a new born, or weak and especially prostrate, older or injured animal is probably the same as a dead one to a vulture. The 1st thing they eat on a dead animal (the easiest and most available) is the eyes, so having eyes pecked out isn’t, in itself, evidence of a vulture KILL, per se. If black vultures have taken to attacking live animals that don’t look moribund, or helpless newmborns, I’d love to see how they DO it, since they are poorly suited to it physically. Also, if they are doing this, it suggests they are moving in to fill an ecological niche formerly held by eagles. If that’s the case, and since vultures are not endangered, it might justify changing the law to remove, or at least modify, their protections.
    But it will require good video evidence of them actually killing a healthy animal to seek that kind of change.

  21. Let me tell you a these black beasts. I live in Mo. and just this morning we witnessed about 50 of beasts attack a 400 pound calf. Took it’s eyes out first and then it couldn’t get away. We couldn’t stop them. They was eating it alive. Finally got a gun and scared them off. came to the house to backhoe to bury it. Went back a big eagle was on it. So don’t call it BS.

    • Thanks Herman. You are the first person who has reported actually watching them attack and kill a live animal, that I’ve seen yet. I’m very curious about how they attack. For example, is the calf standing still, moving around, etc? Do they have to land on it to peck at the eyes or have they learned to do that “on the fly?” This would be a whole new behavioral module, if they do it in the air. When you said they were “eating the calf alive,” did they land on it while it was up and moving, or did they get it on the ground first? Also, how did they try to eat it, I mean did they attack The traditional open spots like the mouth or anus, or actually bite through the closed hide elsewhere? I know these questions sound ghoulish, but they are important because they may indicate whole new abilities for these birds. For example, normal vultures can’t close their claws like most other birds. If these are able to stay on the back of a resisting animal, they may be developing this ability somehow. And if we are seeing much stronger and more aggressive black vultures, who have learned new strategies to attack live prey, you may actually be seeing the emergence of a new sub-species of vulture, capable of interbreeding with the older black vultures. If they’re notably stronger and more aggressive, they may be positioned to replace more timid vultures, both Black and Turkey types, altogether, over time.

  22. Just because a person has not wittiest something themselves does not mean it is not happening, they just might not have seen it seen it. It may be happening just not were that person lives or there is some other reason they have not noticed it. If the black headed vouchers are attaching animals and they congregate in large numbers it would seem likely that they would attack in numbers even without much communication. If there is large numbers of black headed voucher and carrion is scarce this may have influenced them to turn to killing live animals. I wonder how they kill animals, but it seem that if they go for the eyes first it would make the animal more helpless. Thought it may be hard for them to hold onto a large animal they do have beaks that are quite capable of ripping of flesh

  23. Vinton county ohio brown township a flock of these black buzzards ate the eyes out of a live 400 lb calf and then finished killing it—–they had it backed up into a fence corner may 23 2020——-there were at least 17 of them…….game warden so far useless……..migratory illegal to kill is his position….lots of people have resorted to fireworks….these buzzards got a calf last year also….and they like deer as well……eat mother and offspring during kid birth……

  24. Isn’t there an exemption to the migratory bird act that permits killing birds that are attacking humans or livestock?


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